To restore blood glucose to a normal level during ketoacidosis, what should the nurse prepare to administer? Polyuria, polyphagia and polydipsia What type of onset does Type 1 diabetes usually have?
Published July 23, By Dr.
Namrata Chhabra Case details A pregnant woman is able to transfer oxygen to her fetus because fetal hemoglobin has a greater affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin. Why is the affinity of fetal hemoglobin for oxygen higher? The tense form of hemoglobin is more prevalent in the circulation of the fetus.
There is less 2, 3-BPG in the fetal circulation as compared to maternal circulation.
Fetal hemoglobin binds 2, 3-BPG with fewer ionic bonds than the adult form. The Bohr Effect is enhanced in the fetus. The oxygen-binding curve of fetal hemoglobin is shifted to the right.
The right answer is -C. It is not due to more prevalence of tense form of fetal hemoglobin in the circulation. It is also not due to less 2, 3 BPG in the fetal circulation, the Bohr Effect is not enhanced in the fetus and the oxygen -binding curve of fetal Hb is also not shifted to the right.
This alternative pathway involves no net yield of ATP from glycolysis. However, it does serve to provide 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, which binds to hemoglobin, decreasing its affinity for oxygen, and so making oxygen more readily available to tissues.
Significance of 2,3 BPG In Hb A adult Hb when 2, 3-BPG binds to deoxyhemoglobin, it acts to stabilize the low oxygen affinity state T state of the oxygen carrier, exploiting the molecular symmetry and positive polarity by forming salt bridges with lysine and histidine residues in the four subunits of hemoglobin figure The R state, with oxygen bound to a heme group, has a different conformation and does not allow this interaction.
By selectively binding to deoxyhemoglobin, 2, 3-BPG stabilizes the T state conformation, making it harder for oxygen to bind hemoglobin and more likely to be released to adjacent tissues. Figure Oxygen binding and unloading. Conditions of low tissue oxygen concentration such as high altitude 2,3-BPG levels are higher in those acclimated to high altitudesairway obstruction, anemia or congestive heart failure will tend to cause RBCs to generate more 2,3-BPG in their effort to generate energy by allowing more oxygen to be released in tissues deprived of oxygen.
This release is potentiated by the Bohr effect in tissues with high energetic demands. Fetal hemoglobin HbF exhibits a low affinity for 2, 3-BPG, resulting in a higher binding affinity for oxygen. Figure Adult Hb and fetal Hb.
FigureFlow of oxygen from maternal Hemoglobin to fetal hemoglobin. Maternal Hb has low affinity for oxygen due to bound 2,3 BPG whereas the affinity of fetal Hb for oxygen is more due to unavailable binding sites for 2,3 BPG.DISCLAIMER: The information on this website is not intended and should not be construed as medical attheheels.comt your health provider.
This particular web section is designed to present more than one view of a controversial subject, pro and con. Combination treatment with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators tezacaftor (VX) and ivacaftor (VX) was designed to target the underlying cause of.
The Best Medical Weight Loss and Family Practice is at Santa Fe's Adobe Family Practice in Beautiful Santa Fe New Mexico. Newborn Nutrition and Feeding C hapter KATHRYN RHODES ALDEN 20 • Describe current recommendations for infant feeding.
• Explain the nurse’s role in helping families to choose an infant feeding method. • Describe nutritional needs of infants. • Recognize newborn feeding-readiness cues.
• Explain maternal and infant indicators of effec- tive breastfeeding. I have written about diabetes quite a few times. Thus far, I must admit, I have kept the discussion relatively conventional. Anyone who has read my previous blogs may not think so, but compared to what I really believe, everything has taken place close to the middle ground.
DIAGNOSIS History and physical examination. The process of HHS usually evolves over several days to weeks, whereas the evolution of the acute DKA episode in type 1 diabetes or even in type 2 diabetes tends to be much shorter.