The attacks were collectively known as the Blitz, which reportedly claimed the lives of 20, civilians in London and destroyed more than a million houses. I believe London was prepared for the onset of the Second World War and in this essay I will state my reasons and contemplations. In anticipation of the bombing, the government carried out plans for the priority evacuation of mothers, children and the handicapped from vulnerable areas.
Communicate findings The steps listed in Table 6. For example, the order of the first three listed steps is highly variable — a health department often verifies the diagnosis and establishes the existence of an outbreak before deciding that a field investigation is warranted.
Conceptually, control measures come after hypotheses have been confirmed, but in practice control measures are usually implemented as soon as the source and mode of transmission are known, which may be early or late in any particular outbreak investigation. Each of the steps is described below in more detail, based on the assumption that you are the health department staff member scheduled to conduct the next field investigation.
Prepare for field work The numbering scheme for this step is problematic, because preparing for field work often is not the first step. Only occasionally do public health officials decide to conduct a field investigation before confirming an increase in cases and verifying the diagnosis.
More commonly, officials discover an increase in the number of cases of a particular disease and then decide that a field investigation is warranted.
Sometimes investigators collect enough information to perform descriptive epidemiology without leaving their desks, and decide that a field investigation is necessary only if they cannot reach a convincing conclusion without one.
Regardless of when the decision to conduct a field investigation is made, you should be well prepared before leaving for the field. The preparations can be grouped into two broad categories: Good preparation in both categories is needed to facilitate a smooth field experience.
Scientific and investigative issues As a field investigator, you must have the appropriate scientific knowledge, supplies, and equipment to carry out the investigation before departing for the field.
Discuss the situation with someone knowledgeable about the disease and about field investigations, and review the applicable literature. In previous similar outbreaks, what have been the sources, modes of transmission, and risk factors for the disease?
Assemble useful references such as journal articles and sample questionnaires. Before leaving for a field investigation, consult laboratory staff to ensure that you take the proper laboratory material and know the proper collection, storage, and transportation techniques. By talking with the laboratory staff you are also informing them about the outbreak, and they can anticipate what type of laboratory resources will be needed.
You also need to know what supplies or equipment to bring to protect yourself. Some outbreak investigations require no special equipment while an investigation of SARS or Ebola hemorrhagic fever may require personal protective equipment such as masks, gowns, and gloves.
Finally, before departing, you should have a plan of action. What are the objectives of this investigation, i.
What will you do first, second, and third? Having a plan of action upon which everyone agrees will allow you to "hit the ground running" and avoid delays resulting from misunderstandings.
Management and operational issues A good field investigator must be a good manager and collaborator as well as a good epidemiologist, because most investigations are conducted by a team rather than just one individual.
The team members must be selected before departure and know their expected roles and responsibilities in the field. What is the role of each? Who is in charge?
If you have been invited to participate but do not work for the local health agency, are you expected to lead the investigation, provide consultation to the local staff who will conduct the investigation, or simply lend a hand to the local staff? And who are your local contacts?
Depending on the type of outbreak, the number of involved agencies may be quite large. If criminal or bioterrorist intent is suspected, law enforcement agencies and the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI may be in charge, or at least involved. Staff from different agencies have different perspectives, approaches, and priorities that must be reconciled.
For example, whereas the public health investigation may focus on identifying a pathogen, source, and mode of transmission, a criminal investigation is likely to focus on finding the perpetrator. Sorting out roles and responsibilities in such multi-agency investigations is critical to accomplishing the disparate objectives of the different agencies.
A communications plan must be established. The need for communicating with the public health and clinical community has long been acknowledged, but the need for communicating quickly and effectively with elected officials and the public became obvious during the epidemics of West Nile Virus encephalitis, SARS, and anthrax.
The plan should include how often and when to have conference calls with involved agencies, who will be the designated spokesperson, who will prepare health alerts and press releases, and the like. When a federal agency is involved in the survey of 10 or more individuals, the data collection instrument must first be cleared by the White House Office of Management and Budget OMB.
In addition, operational and logistical details are important.On 11 December , TfL announced that they were seeking ‘launch partners’ for the opening of the Elizabeth line.
What is on offer is “a unique opportunity that will align with this historic moment for London”. For a number of reasons, the announcement raised a few eyebrows at LR Towers. Olympics: is UK prepared for outbreak? are able to analyse the risk posed to London from an outbreak elsewhere in the world by looking at air passenger traffic into the city from the location.
This memorial in Hyde Park commemorates the service men and women who served in WWI and WWII by listing the names of the towns in which they were born.
The Cholera Morbus was first noticed among British troops in India and was first described near Jessore in By it had spread to Russia and vivid accounts appeared in the press of the effects of cholera in St.
Petersburg. This first hand knowledge of the disease, and reports of the mortality it could cause in large cities, led . Jul 31, · (CNN)-- The fear began just after news broke Thursday that a long-range business jet with an isolation pod left the United States for Liberia, where it will evacuate two Americans infected with.
Experts from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority said they believed products prepared in the UK were the source of the outbreak.